Most Ashkenazi Jews Trace Maternal Lineage To Europe, Study Finds

The singles went down to the final match, and as he did at the Ryder Cup in Medinah, Francesco Molinari anchored the winning side, securing a long-awaited Continental Europe victory with a 3 & 2 defeat of Chris Wood at Saint-Nom-La- Breteche. “Very emotional — it’s been a tough day,” said winning captain Jose Maria Olazabal. “Everything went to the last match. The boys really played well today and I’m very, very happy to have won the Seve Trophy this time.” GB&I struck first on Sunday when Tommy Fleetwood claimed his first point of the week with a 3 & 2 win over Joost Luiten, who was unbeaten entering the match. After Jamie Donaldson and Gonzalo Fernandez-Castano halved their match, Ryder Cup standout Nicolas Colsaerts drew Continental Europe even, draining a 5- footer for par at the last to secure a 1-up win over Paul Casey. Frenchman Gregory Bourdy then continued his stellar play and pushed Continental Europe in front with a 4 & 3 triumph over Scott Jamieson. Bourdy, who never trailed in the match, became the first player in the event’s history to win five points out of five. “I’m so happy to achieve that, and it was an amazing week for me,” said Bourdy. The jostling continued, however, as Marc Warren wrapped up a 4 & 3 ousting of Thorbjorn Olesen to again square the tournament, 12 – 12, with four matches left on the course. From there, Continental Europe took control. Jimenez put the finishing touches on his convincing win, which was aided in part by the ailing Lynn, who twice dropped his ball into the water. Matteo Manassero then increased Continental Europe’s advantage to a pair with a 3 & 2 defeat of Stephen Gallacher. Paul Lawrie showed the GB&I mettle with a 2 & 1 win over Mikko Ilonen, but Molinari was in control at that point, holding a 2-up lead over Wood through 14 holes. After the pair matched birdies at the 15th, Molinari dropped his tee shot at the par-3 17th within 12 feet and drained the birdie putt to seal the Continental Europe victory. “It was going to go down to the last three matches at least,” continued Olazabal.

Opinion: Europe must be open to refugees fleeing persecution

By Tia Ghose,Livescience.com / October 8, 2013 The find contradicts the notion that European Jews mostly descend from people who left Israel about 2,000 years ago. clh/HO/The Wellcome Trust/Reuters The Christian Science Monitor Weekly Digital Edition Though the finding may seem intuitive, it contradicts the notion that European Jews mostly descend from people who left Israel and the Middle East around 2,000 years ago. Instead, a substantial proportion of the population originates from local Europeans who converted to Judaism, said study co-author Martin Richards, an archaeogeneticist at the University of Huddersfield in England. Tangled legacy Little is known about the history of Ashkenazi Jews before they were expelled from the Mediterranean and settled in what is now Poland around the 12th century. On average, all Ashkenazi Jews are genetically as closely related to each other as fourth or fifth cousins, said Dr. Harry Ostrer, a pathology, pediatrics and genetics professor at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York and the author of “Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People” (Oxford University Press, 2012). RECOMMENDED: Are you scientifically literate? Take our quiz But depending on whether the lineage gets traced through maternal or paternal DNA or through the rest of the genome, researchers got very different answers for whether Ashkenazi originally came from Europe or the Near East. Past research found that 50 percent to 80 percent of DNA from the Ashkenazi Y chromosome , which is used to trace the male lineage, originated in the Near East, Richards said. That supported a story wherein Jews came from Israel and largely eschewed intermarriage when they settled in Europe. [ The Holy Land: 7 Amazing Archaeological Finds ] But historical documents tell a slightly different tale. Based on accounts such as those of Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, by the time of the destruction of the Second Temple in A.D. 70, as many as 6 million Jews were living in the Roman Empire , but outside Israel, mainly in Italy and Southern Europe.

Continental Europe ends Seve Trophy drought

Sexual violence and torture are commonplace. For refugees, staying at home — or ‘going back to where they came from’ — is not an option. Difficult though it may be for us to comprehend, for refugees, paying smugglers and boarding these boats is a rational decision. The problem is compounded by the lack of safe, legal routes into Europe. The Refugee Convention — a legal framework which defines who refugees are, their rights and the legal obligations of countries — recognizes that people fleeing for their lives may have to resort to illegal entry. This drives refugees to take even greater risks to escape. European countries have a legal obligation to provide protection under the Refugee Convention but during the last decade the continent’s borders have become heavily securitized, with millions of pounds invested in Frontex, the agency established by the EU to strengthen Europe’s borders and protect the continent against unwanted illegal migrants. These measures should not apply to individuals escaping war and persecution — the theoretical beneficiaries of legally sanctioned protection and compassion — but refugees are often forced to resort to the same irregular channels to leave their country of origin and travel towards safety. Europe’s formidable migration control apparatus does not sufficiently differentiate between individuals who may be in need of international protection and other migrants. In the absence of safe, legal ways to reach European territories, refugees are forced into dangerous and abusive situations, and often obliged to embrace the perils of life-threatening journeys and the unscrupulous services of smugglers. Boarding an overcrowded boat bound for Italy would possibly have been the last stage in a long and dangerous journey for many of those on that voyage. Some of them possibly didn’t even know where they were headed. European governments must work in solidarity to ensure people fleeing human rights violations and persecution are given entry. When people are in need of our help, we must live up to our international obligations and offer it.